Do I need Ionic’s Geolocation Plugin?

Most likely not. As described in the Cordova documentation and Ionic documentation, the plugin is for devices that don’t already provide an implementation. The vast majority of modern smartphones natively support the WebView Geolocation API. Also, cellphone enabled tablets typically have a GPS. However, WiFi only tablets may be limited to using non-GPS, WiFi-based geolocation, but the Geolocation API will still work although it will be less accurate.

Skipping the plugin simplifies installation and implementation. You don’t have to install it and that eliminates any possible conflicts and provides a minor reduction in application size. You also don’t have to import the plugin into your application components and that simplifies your code. You can simply use navigator.geolocation like you would in any regular JavaScript app:


watchId = navigator.geolocation.watchPosition(success[, error[, options]])

Sample application: https://github.com/andygup/ionic2-esri-map

Advanced geolocation plugin for Cordova and PhoneGap for Android

The W3C’s browser-based, JavaScript Geolocation API is excellent as a one-size-fits-all interface, but that approach comes at a price and it can cause some serious limitations when it comes to implementing more stringent professional, commercial and government use-cases.

Challenges with the default Geolocation API. One of the primary limitations is the Geolocation API does not tell you how it got a location. All locations are lumped together in a black box. Let me explain. On a smartphone or tablet, location data comes from one of three places: the GPS chipset, the cellular provider’s Location Service, or the browser’s Location Service. The W3C Geolocation API simply lumps these data points together. The end result is typically seen by the end user as significant and disturbingly wild jumps back and forth in the reported location, sometimes over large distances. A key to minimizing these fluctuations is to gain back control and understand which location provider created the latitude and longitude point.

Cordova-plugin-advanced-geolocation. The good news is that Android, in particular, has a very detailed API called LocationManager for examining geolocation data that comes from the device.  And, even better news for JavaScript developers is that the API, along with its access to all on-device GPS and Network location providers, has been exposed thru a Cordova plugin that is available here: https://github.com/Esri/cordova-plugin-advanced-geolocation.

What geolocation data is available? With this plugin you’ll be able to programmatically differentiate between the following geolocation data as well as get access to GPS satellites meta data:

  • Real-time GPS location – This is data from the on-board GPS or some devices will allow it to be the location data from an external GPS that is connected to the device via bluetooth.
  • Cached GPS location – Most devices cache the last-known GPS location and it’s persistent even when the device is restarted.
  • Real-time Network location triangulation – this is completely dependent on devices and cellular service providers. It may require WiFi to be turned on. It also may not be available in all countries or regions.
  • Cached Network location – Most devices cache the last-known network-based location and it’s persistent even when the device is restarted.

Use cases. With this plugin, you can now use your JavaScript skills to implement the following use cases and much more. For example, I’ve always wanted to play with the Satellite data to make a 3D map of the satellites using JavaScript. This plugin provides a huge advantage to developers building applications for capturing a single location such as field survey work as well as the following use cases and others that I haven’t thought of:

  • Determine a static outdoors location and only use GPS.
  • While indoors turn on only network location. Do not use GPS.
  • While in an urban area, use network location to get initial location before the GPS warms up and then turn off network location and only use GPS
  • Compare the differences between GPS and Network locations
  • …???

How does this plugin help minimize location fluctuations? This plugin comes with a configuration option for turning on a buffer. You can set the size of the buffer, each new geolocation from the device will be added to it, and then plugin will determine the geometric center based on all the locations in the buffer.

Are there any other advanced plugins? Yes, some Cordova plugins are focused on being activity based and will detect if you are walking, stopped, moving, etc. These plugins tend to work as apps that can be backgrounded. Feel free to browse the Cordova plug-in directory here.

Does using PhoneGap improve geolocation?

No, using PhoneGap or Cordova doesn’t change how you retrieve geolocation information from within a mobile application and it doesn’t improve accuracy. You still use the W3C HTML Geolocation API coding pattern.

The reason why is because PhoneGap runs the HTML/CSS/JS code in a native OS WebView. This is a chrome-less browser with mostly similar functionality as Chrome (Android) and Safari (iOS). There isn’t any additional functionality that would improve accuracy.

Some people have asked me if cordova-plugin-geolocation provides additional functionality. That plugin only works for devices that don’t already support geolocation and then it abides by the W3C Geolocation API spec.

The HTML Geolocation API in the browser also works offline. Yes, it’s true. You can use a web browser offline to get geolocation and even view a map without PhoneGap, here’s an example project that demonstrates the functionality in a number of ways. As long as the GPS on the device is enabled and working, and the user opt’s in at the geolocation-approval prompt then the application will receive GPS location data.

Are there any advantages to using PhoneGap for geolocation?

Yes, there are several potential advantages to using PhoneGap for geolocation. You can retrieve geolocation information while the device screen is locked and/or when the application is running in the background. You cannot do this with a typical web app. As soon as a browser is minimized a web app will stop running even if the GPS is still running.

Another advantage is you can write a PhoneGap plug-in to tap directly into the native OS location API. Taking this approach will give you a greater level of control over the information you are retrieving. And, you have coding tools and access to APIs to better manage the device’s battery life in a way that the HTML Geolocation API cannot deliver. In the case of Android you can tap into significantly greater information such as details on GPS satellites, granular information on device’s internet connection, as well as NMEA strings and more.

What all mobile web devs should know about PhoneGap

If you already building or looking into getting started with mobile web applications you should understand the basics of PhoneGap. The name ‘PhoneGap’ is widely recognized, and perhaps more widely misunderstood.

The nudge to write this article was born out of conversations where we stumbled across concrete limitations to modern responsive JavaScript libraries such as bootstrap and jQuery. Limitations that cannot be overcome by adding more brilliant functionality because some JavaScript capabilities simply do not exist within the browser today. Furthermore, other requirements were imposed by political realities, timeframes and expectations.

That’s where PhoneGap steps in. 

So what, tell me what PhoneGap does?

PhoneGap is owned by Adobe and it has an open source top-level Apache Foundation sister project called Cordova. I won’t bore you with its long and twisted history, you can read about it here if you want.

The bottom line is PhoneGap allows you to develop JavaScript mobile applications that have access to certain aspects of the native device such as writing data to a filesystem. Your web application is wrapped within a native mobile application container that gives you JavaScript access to native operating system capabilities beyond what the browser itself is capable of doing!

By native I mean iOS Objective C, Android Java, WindowsPhone, Windows 8, Blackberry 10, Amazon Fire OS and Tizen. Your JavaScript applications runs in a chrome-less browser that gives you special hooks to the operating system. You can also submit PhoneGap applications to the AppStore, Google Play and others.

Who uses this stuff, well you may be using a PhoneGap app from one of these online stores and not even know it. To mention a few: Southwest Airlines and many others.

What limitations can PhoneGap address that responsive libraries don’t?

If your requirements call for all or most of the following items, then PhoneGap is the correct choice for your project today. That may change as HTML5 continues to rapidly grow, but for now I’m sticking with the following bullet points. Stick with me and read through all of these before starting to throw out counter arguments.

JavaScript skillz. If you are an existing JavaScript shop, then PhoneGap leverages your existing JavaScript skills to access capabilities beyond current browser functionality without the need to have an in-depth understanding of Objective C or Java.

Sure, it’s easy to say you can hire expert contractors to develop iOS and Android applications, along with UX designers and testers. But, if your budget doesn’t include the capital costs for these folks and all you have is JavaScript ninjas on staff then the choice is easy.

Or, maybe you have genius-level developers that could easily and quickly spin up on all your need to know on ObjectiveC and Java Android. If this isn’t the case, and your timeframes and budgets don’t allow for this then you’ll need a fallback plan such as PhoneGap.

Access to camera.  Yes, you can currently access the camera on some web browsers today. However, the support on mobile browsers is still inconsistent, limited or non-existent. On the other hand, native device OS’s are expected to have access to cameras If they didn’t it would be considered a serious oversight. PhoneGap provides cross-platform mobile device access to the camera.

Read/write access to SD Card. Just to reiterate, this is both read and write access to a local storage device. Certainly there is a FileReader API in plain old JavaScript, but as far as I know there isn’t a FileWriter or its equivalent yet. If you need the write access to go along with read capabilities then you should be looking at PhoneGap.

[Correction Jan. 27, 2014] I mis-wrote. The FileWriter API exists however it has limited supported across browsers: http://caniuse.com/#search=filewriter. And, examples of it’s use can be found here.

AppStore or Google Play. If you have a requirement to submit your application to the app store then PhoneGap will help you get there. There is no way today for submitting a stand-alone web application for acceptance on AppStore or Google Play. Period. Some will argue that the need for using these online application stores is going away, but that’s a non-issue if you have been directed to meet this requirement a.s.a.p. and your job depends on it. If that’s the case, then PhoneGap will be your friend.

Is there anything else I should know?

Yes…First, PhoneGap is not perfect, but then again few software projects are perfect. You will need to install and know a few things about the native IDEs you want to support. If you want to deploy Android you’ll need to install Eclipse or IntelliJ. For iOS you’ll need to install XCode. Etc. You still have to compile a native project or you can try your hand at Adobe’s PhoneGap Build, which is a cloud based build system for PhoneGap.

It is confusing that there are two projects that share a common/similar code base: PhoneGap and Cordova. Also, Cordova’s documentation has typically been more up to date that Adobe’s. If you do your research you’ll find various performance complaints and bug issues (like I just said are there any software projects that don’t have these??).  Yet, overall it’s a great starting point if you have the needs listed above, and it’s much better than trying to start from scratch given today’s dramatically shortened delivery expectations.

You can absolutely still use bootstrap, jQuery and other JavaScript libraries within PhoneGap. There are caveats, of course, related to application life-cycle issue, navigation as well as App Store and Google Play user interface acceptance guidelines.

If you want to add functionality to PhoneGap because you find some critical thing is missing that you need for your project, the good news is you can develop a custom plug-in.

Last, I should mention Titanium Studio. It also lets you leverage JavaScript skills, with the primary difference being that it converts JavaScript into native byte code rather than just displaying it in a chrome-less view.  Plus it’s comes with its own IDE and MVC Framework.  I’ve never used Titanium so I can’t judge it, however I know people who do use it successfully and love it. It’s one more thing to consider that you should be aware of.

References

Cordova Documentation

PhoneGap Documentation

PhoneGap Platform Support